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polonofobia in art

Sunday, September 20, 2015
Historical accuracy for the classroom? Forget it! Art Spiegelman makes no effort to correct the falsifications of history in MAUS in this METAMAUS volume. Instead, Spiegelman advances the following lame exculpations for his anti-Polish bigotry:

MAUS IS ONLY SEMI-FICTION AND BIOGRAPHY >>more...

Jews can be farmers

Thursday, September 17, 2015
A classic of rabbinic literature. -- Rabbi Dr. Jeffrey R. Woolf, Senior Lecturer in Talmud at Bar Ilan University<br /><br />A classic of rabbinic literature. --Rabbi Dr. Jeffrey R. Woolf, Senior Lecturer in Talmud at Bar Ilan University<br /><br />Continues to speak to the 21st century student. -- Rabbi Shalom Carmy, Noted Jewish Thinker and Assistant Professor of Bible and Jewish Philosophy at Yeshiva University<br /><br />Continues to speak to the 21st century student. --Rabbi Shalom Carmy, Noted Jewish Thinker and Assistant Professor of Bible and Jewish Philosophy at Yeshiva University<br /><br />I found that this book gave my students a broad understanding of the development of early rabbinic literature. -- Rabbi Dr. Elazar Hurvitz, Professor of Biblical and Talmudic Literature at Yeshiva University<br /><br />I found that this book gave my students a broad understanding of the development of early rabbinic literature. --Rabbi Dr. Elazar Hurvitz, Professor of Biblical and Talmudic Literature at Yeshiva University

Continues to speak to the 21st century student. --Rabbi Shalom Carmy, Noted Jewish Thinker and Assistant Professor of Bible and Jewish Philosophy at Yeshiva University

A classic of rabbinic literature. --Rabbi Dr. Jeffrey R. Woolf, Senior Lecturer in Talmud at Bar Ilan University >>more...

Jews and tax evasion

Thursday, September 17, 2015
The author identifies himself as Jewish. (p. x). His work consists of many details on the Jewish provisions, in rabbinical literature, dealing with gentiles.

JEWISH UNIVERSALISM: GENTILES WELCOMED INTO THE TEMPLE

Gentiles had access to the Temple, though it was limited, (quote) The two relevant meanings for our purposes are the Temple as YHWH’s residence and the Temple as the Israelites’ ethnic shrine. (unquote). (p. 303). Though author Gary Porton does not put it this way, this situation reflects the ambivalence of YHWH as a Jewish tribal Deity, and YHWH as the God of all peoples. [This corresponds to Polish scholar Feliks Koneczny’s idea of Judaism consisting of both monolatry and monotheism. >>more...

Jews and 1830 Poles insuraction

Friday, September 11, 2015
The author identifies himself as a German, or at least one of German extraction. (p. 94). He served as a cadet in Grand-Duke Constantine’s Imperial Russian Body Guard >>more...

Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning

Friday, September 11, 2015
improved revue
The informed reader, familiar with Holocaust-related works, will quickly notice that much of what Snyder discusses has already been said before by other authors, and even by Snyder in his earlier books. I generally focus on the new content. Unfortunately, there are many flaws in this book (whence my two-star rating), and I later discuss a few of them >>more...

The Scholarly and Public Reception of the Holocaust

Friday, September 11, 2015
The reader may erroneously get the impression that this book is primarily about the trivialization of the Holocaust, or a retreat from its moral gravity. Such themes are only a modest portion of this book. Most of it is about how the Holocaust has been treated by academia and the media, little of which involves a softening or trivialization of Nazi crimes. A good deal of it is about how Germans try to relativize the crimes of their forebears. >>more...

Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning, by Timothy Snyder

Friday, September 11, 2015
Some Novel Ideas. Much Old Information. Major Distortions and Omissions of Important Facts (Elaborated) The informed reader, familiar with Holocaust-related works, will quickly notice that much of what Snyder discusses has already been said before by other authors, and even by Snyder in his earlier books. I generally focus on the new content. Unfortunately, there are many flaws in this book (whence my two-star rating), and I later discuss a few of them >>more...

BUTA MĄDROSCI MICHNIKA Z PIENIĘDZMI W TLE: placimy im za to , aby nas jeszcze ogłupiali:Jewish haughtiness ,Michnik

Sunday, August 23, 2015
Twórca  i Herold  patriotyzmu- nie wiem  wprawdzie jakiego- Adam Michnik  w specyficznym tonie  składał  zyczenia  nowowybranemu  Prezydentowi Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej Andzejowi Duda. Warto przytoczyc  Michnikowskie słowa:”Zyczę Prezydentowi Dudzie , by umiał uszanować mądzrejszych od Siebie, umiał kierować sie zdrowym rozsądkiem „ >>more...

NA pogramiczu dwu swiatow: Jewish assimilation and its traps

Thursday, August 20, 2015
  1
IN THE NO-MAN’S-LAND BETWEEN TWO WORLDS is a nonliteral, but perhaps the most informative, translation of this Polish-language work. It refers to the assimilated Jewish author’s difficulty of completely fitting into either the Jewish world or the Polish world.

In fact, and as noted by many authors, “assimilation” is an amorphous term. Though of course not written for this purpose, this memoir, by a high-ranking assimilated Polish Jew, helps the reader understand why the Endeks commonly doubted if assimilated Polish Jews are “real” Poles.

This memoir of Apolinary Hartglas (1883-1953), covers quite a range of Polish history—from life under tsarist Russia, through the Second Republic (1918-1939), WWII and the Nazi German occupation, and the early postwar period. Helpful comments, and biographical information, are provided by Jolanta Zyndul. For instance, one learns that industrialist and politician Leopold Kronenberg (1812-1879), a lifelong Jew, had converted to Christianity in 1845, had supported the Poles’ ill-fated January 1863 Insurrection, but was then ennobled by the tsarist Russian authorities in 1868. (p. 25).

EARLY LIFE

The author was born, and grew up in, Siedlce, in Russian-ruled Congress Poland, in what is now the central part of eastern Poland. The language spoken at home was Polish, except when the parents wanted to hide something from the children. Then they spoke Yiddish. The family ate TREYF food, and did not observe the Sabbath. They only attended synagogue on Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah. (p. 30).

The young Apolinary disliked the traditional dress of non-assimilated Jews, and frowned on Jewish funerals, owing to the paid grievers and their loud wailing. He found Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic funerals much more dignified. (p. 31).

As a young boy, Apolinary, owing to his dislike for Jews even though he was one, used to run the local Jewish children off the town square. He indicates that the Polish children neither encouraged him in this conduct, nor took part in it. (p. 35).

POLES AND JEWS: HISTORY WAS NOT BLACK AND WHITE

Hartglas writes that he experienced countless acts of benevolence from Poles, and never personally suffered from Polish anti-Semitism. (p. 40, 46). While in GYMNASIUM (high school), he was once insulted by a Russian and once by a Pole. These incidents were resolved with fisticuffs, with Poles and Russians sometimes supported him. (pp. 46-47).

Apolinary Hartglas stated that he loved both the Polish and the Jewish nations. He also shared the Jews’ grief and anger at the wrongs that Jews faced from Poles, even though he himself did not experience them. (p. 19). At the same time, he felt many of the same grievances that many Poles—including even the “best” Poles—had against Jews. (p. 19).

Interestingly, Hartglas’ worst experiences were from fellow Jews. For instance, while a lawyer, he was exploited by Jews. Large numbers of Jewish clients would come to him, saying that they were destitute and in need of his services for free, even though they later turned out to be well-off. (p. 107).

THE 1906 SIEDLCE AND BIALYMSTOK POGROMS

Thirty Jews perished in the Siedlce pogrom, and Hartlas arrived soon thereafter to investigate the pogrom. Based on eyewitness accounts, he concluded that the perpetrators had been Russian soldiers, and not Poles. In fact, Poles had sheltered the Jews. (p. 88).

Hartglas also arrived, by train, to the area near Bialymstok, the site of another pogrom. He plainly saw the train station surrounded by Russians. Some of them got on the train, and beat up a Jew. (pp. 90-91). Later, Hartglas and Jabotinsky spoke with eyewitnesses, and concluded that the perpetrators had been Russian police, soldiers, and youth. Very rarely had the perpetrators been Poles and Belarussians, who aided the Jews. (p. 91). Hartglas repudiated the tsarist Russian attempts to blame the pogrom on the Poles. (p. 92).

HOW “POLISH” WERE POLAND’S ASSIMILATED JEWS?

The leading Jewish assimilationist weekly, IZRAELITA, edited by Samuel Cwi Peltyn, supported Zionism. (p. 51). Hartglas said that his Jewishness was not a religion but a nationality, in the same way that Poles are a nationality. (p. 18, 54). What’s more, Hartglas plainly stated that he did not consider himself a Pole. (p. 55). In addition, Hartglas considered himself a Zionist. (p. 51). Zionism, by definition, was a form of loyalty to another state, and not only, or not at all, to Poland.

HAVING YOUR CAKE AND EATING IT TOO

During some May 3 ceremonies in 1916, there was a speech given by a prominent Jewish speaker. The speech called for Jews to be granted full rights alongside Poles, while also fully retaining their rights to their own language and their own cultural separatism. (p. 174). Based on this, one might reasonably think that this Jewish speaker was part of the Yiddishist (folkist, or Bundist) variety. But no. It was Hartglas—the assimilated Polish Jew.

The foregoing confirms Endek accusations that Poland’s Jews wanted it both ways—to be Poles and NOT to be Poles. Is it any wonder that Endeks commonly doubted if assimilation would transform Jews into Poles?

Of course, there were also assimilated Polish Jews who considered themselves Polish by nationality. (pp. 190-192). However, it is unclear how common they were, and how many of them were unambiguously Poles first and Jews second.

Interestingly, Hartglas’ attitudes towards the Jewish national movement were not exactly flattering. Referring to the time around 1914, Hartlas stated that the idealistic assimilationist impulse was dead, that the Jewish national movement had by now grown immensely, and that—outside of Zionism—it had, in his words, “acquired distasteful, chauvinistic tones.” (p. 152).

INDEPENDENT POLAND (1918-1939)

During this time, Hartglas served in the Sejm (Polish parliament). Jews constituted about 10% of Poland’s population. The militant ONR (Oboz Narodowo Radykalny), demanded a reduction in the 40% share of Poland’s lawyers that were Jewish. Interestingly, the ONR did not call for the elimination of Poland’s Jewish lawyers. Instead, the ONR wanted the Jewish share of Poland's lawyers reduced to 5%. (p. 192).

POLAND IN WWII

The author gave his firsthand experiences with the German siege of Warsaw in 1939. He then described the Nazi creation of the Warsaw Ghetto. Hartglas knew Adam Czerniakow quite well. The author was candid about the fact that the Jews were involved in commercial activities with the Germans, including with the Gestapo. (p. 321).

The Nazis proposed that Jews be removed from among Poland’s lawyers. Leon Nowodworski (1889-1941), described by Hartglas as a strong anti-Semite despite his Frankist ancestry, and a National Democrat close in views to the ONR, replied without hesitation, (quote) If such a need arises in a free Poland, we ourselves will remove Jews from among our lawyers. But as long as this is a proposal from an occupant, then not only won’t we do this, but we will fight against the removal of our Jewish colleagues.” (unquote). (Translated by me). (pp. 295-296). Touche! This act of defiance by Nowodworski was a factor in his arrest by the Germans.

It is a rarely-known fact that some Jews were allowed to emigrate from German-occupied Poland in 1939 (p. 315). Hartglas did so, enabling him to escape the eventual Holocaust. He went to Palestine, where he spent the last several years of his life. Comment Was this review helpful to you? Yes No >>more...

Hasidic Movement in Old Poland. Broad-Based Implications:Hassidim MAskilim

Wednesday, August 19, 2015
his is a very detailed work which contains much technical detail. The title, MEN OF SILK (Kitajcy), stems from the fact that Hasidim commonly wore silk in order to avoid wearing wool—in which there was the danger of some linen threads being mixed in with the wool threads. (p. 2, 61).his is a very detailed work which contains much technical detail. The title, MEN OF SILK (Kitajcy), stems from the fact that Hasidim commonly wore silk in order to avoid wearing wool—in which there was the danger of some linen threads being mixed in with the wool threads. (p. 2, 61). >>more...
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